Paper Title
INFLUENCE OF MARITAL STRESS AND PERSONALITY DIMENSIONS ON JOB SATISFACTION AMONG MARRIED FEMALE SECONDARY SCHOOL TEACHERS IN EBONYI STATE, NIGERIA
Author
Sampson O. Elom, Felicia O. Chukwu Oko, Eric Onwudiwe, & D. J. Levi-Lortyom
Section
Education
Abstract

The study investigated the influence of marital stress and personality dimensions on job satisfaction among married female secondary school teachers in Ebonyi State, Nigeria. Three research hypotheses guided the study. Descriptive research design was used. The population for the study was 1338 married female teachers and 602 were used as the sample for the study. Three instruments were used for collection of data, which include: Marital stress inventory (MSI) which had reliability coefficient of 0.85, Big Five Inventory(BFI) sub-scale on Extroversion personality had 0.80 reliability coefficient and the Minnesota satisfaction questionnaire (MSQ) had reliability coefficient of 0.93. Two-way ANOVA statistic was employed to analyze the data. The result showed that married female teachers differed significantly on job satisfaction between those with high marital stress and those with low marital stress (F(I,601), = 7.67, P<.01). The second hypothesis on whether a significant difference exists on job satisfaction between married female teachers that are extroverts and those that are introvert was also significant (F(1,601),=44.85,p<.01); there was significant interaction effect between marital stress and personality dimensions on job satisfaction (F(1,601), = 6.99, P<. 01). This means that low marital stress and extroversion personality improves job satisfaction among married women teachers in Ebonyi State. The study, therefore, recommended among others that there should be public and private partnership (PPP) in order to improve on the needs and demands of female teachers to enhance job satisfaction, reduce stress and improve on personality dimensions for increase in productivity. 

Keywords
Marital stress, Personality dimension, Job satisfaction, Female teacher and Ebonyi State.

Introduction           

Job satisfaction is a subjective measure of worker attitudes, that is, an individual’s general attitude to his or her job. A person with high job satisfaction holds positive attitudes towards the job, and one who is dissatisfied with one’s job has negative attitudes towards it (Robbins, 2003). Weir (2009) suggested that if an employee’s attitude is right he or she will not experience job satisfaction. Ivancevich and Matteson (2005) defined job satisfaction as an attitude that individuals have towards their jobs which stems from their perception of their jobs and the degree to which there is a good fit between the individual and the organization. Gannon (2009) viewed job satisfaction as the difference between the amount of some valued outcome a person receives and the amount of that outcome.

            Teaching is the primary role of the teachers in the secondary school; counseling, advising, and administrative responsibilities further expand the role. Good teaching is the expectation of any institution of learning whether it occurs in the classroom or the laboratory, and the reputation of being an excellent teacher is one of the coveted rewards to be earned in any school; once earned it is re-earned through a continuous   series of activities. Teaching includes the instruction of students, and instruction includes: preparation of instructional materials, attending of classes, evaluation and the grading of the students’ progress reports/ results, and timely submission of results (Vroom, 2004). The challenge of teaching is to motivate the students to learn and facilitate learning. The student's learning should be organized, sequenced and supervised by the instructor so that new knowledge and skills are consistently gained (Denga, 2002).

In teaching, male and females are involved. However, the group that is more disturbed or concerned about performance effectiveness of students is the married female teachers. Many people tend to express reservation over job satisfaction and effectiveness of married teachers. As stated by Sarwar (1994), there are many aspects of job where the performance of female teachers leaves much to be desired. Some of the areas that people such as scholars, administrators, policy makers tend to express reservation over the effectiveness of females teachers include: timely submission of students result; school attendance and regular class attendance. Sarwar (1994) equally stated that in order to move along in their work, a good number of them tend to depend on male colleagues in most cases for helping hands or those that marry fellow teachers will depend on their husbands. As a result of this situation, female teachers do not appear to be progressing as speedily as their male counterparts in the secondary schools, which and this poses stress on them (Carrell, Elbert & Hatfield, 1998).

Teacher stress is specifically defined as a condition of negative affects, such as frustration and anxiety, which results from aspects of the job. According to Gelvin (2007), teacher stress is a response syndrome of negative effects resulting from aspects of a teacher's job and mediated by the perception that the demands constitute a threat to self-esteem and coping mechanisms activated to reduce the perceived threat. The stress of teaching as an occupation is widespread and cross-cultural. As observed by Lhospital & Gregory (2009), teachers today face high stress that can compromise their well-being, longevity in the profession, and the quality of their interactions with students. Consequently, many teachers have been leaving the profession in increasing numbers (Thomas, Clarke & Lavery, 2003).  For instances, a high proportion of teachers who remained on their jobs freely admitted their dissatisfaction and rated their jobs as very stressful. Wahlund & Nerel (1976) found that among white collar occupational groups in Sweden, teachers were the most exposed to job related stress especially married ones. Kokkinos (2006) reported that primary school teachers in Cyprus were high on emotional exhaustion while their counterparts in the secondary schools were higher on depersonalization. According to Evers, Tomic, & Brouwers (2005) and Kokkinos, Panayiotou, & Dazoglou (2005), negative aspects of the teaching job such as disciplinary problems, students’ apathy, overcrowded classrooms, involuntary transfer, inadequate salaries, and lack of administrative support are among the stressors that confront teachers in both developed and developing nations .

 

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