Paper Title
GLOBALIZATION AND THE BOKO HARAM INSURGENCY IN NIGERIA: AN APPRAISAL
Author
Obinna Cyril Nnamchi
Section
Law, Leadership, and Social Sciences
Abstract

The rising spate of insurgency in the 21st century is alarming. This menace seems to have been attributed to a kind of revolt on the injustices, frustrations, relative deprivations and ill treatments allegedly meted on the aggressors. To further probe this assertion, this study examines globalization and Boko Haram insurgency in Nigeria. Data for the study was gathered from secondary sources such as textbooks, journals, periodicals, newspapers and other relevant publications. The Dependency theory is adopted as framework of analysis for the study. The theory defines a situation in which policy or life of a state or its citizens are exploitatively determined by an outside power or powers, usually through the simultaneous unequal socio-economic, political and cultural measures. The study discovers that contemporary globalization and its tool of information technology exacerbates and sustains Boko Haram insurgency in Nigeria. The study recommends a review of the world economic order to correct the lopsided economic relationship between the developed and developing countries with a view to addressing the internal dynamics of insurgency.

Keywords
globalization, Boko Haram, insurgency

Introduction

Evolution of mankind from the ancient period through medieval to the modern times has left man in a struggle for survival without domination by fellow man, as evident in Hobbesian state of nature (John, 2000). There have thus been efforts to improve the living conditions of man. Global political and economic relations as witnessed today have gone through developmental trends and hiccups in an attempt by various international players to achieve favourable and stable economies (Ikpe, 2000). One of such trends is globalization which is basically a process of interaction and integration among the people, companies, and government of different nations driven by international trade and investment and aided by information technology (Okolie, 1999).

Today, globalization is linking peoples’ lives more intensely and instantaneously than ever before. People everywhere are becoming connected and affected by events at far corners of the world (UNDP, 1999). There are new foreign exchange and capital markets linked globally, operating 24 hours a day with dealings at a distance being coordinated with information and communication technology. New information and communication technology tools, new actors (state and non-state), and new rules, such as multilateral agreements on trade, services and intellectual property backed by strong enforcement mechanisms that are more binding for national governments, reducing the scope for national policy, have also emerged.

Arguably, UNDP (1999), Okolie (1999), and Mule (2000) have divergent views on the subject matter of globalization. Supporters of globalization argue that it has the potential to make the world a better place to live in and solve some of the deep-seated problems like unemployment and poverty, free trade that reduces barriers such as tariffs, value-added taxes, subsidies and other economic barriers between nations. These proponents maintain that globalization represents free trade which promotes global economic growth, creates jobs, makes companies more competitive, and lowers prices for consumers. Competition between countries is supposed to drive prices down. It also provides poor countries, through infusions of foreign capital and technology, with the chance to develop economically, and, by spreading prosperity, creates the conditions in which democracy and respect for human rights may flourish.

Conversely, as true and convincing as the supporters standpoint may appear, critics of globalization (Ake, 1981;  Oyejide, 1998; and Mule, 2000) strongly maintain that it is another ploy by the imperialists to further incorporate developing nations into the western capitalist orbit, citing the Breton Wood and Uruguay’s round trade conferences where world economic order and trade agreements were made without African representation which continually keeps the continent in an unequal trade relations with her European counterparts. The underlying complaint about globalization amongst these critics is that it has made the rich richer while making the poor poorer. Oyejide (1998) and Mule (2000) contend that trade relations between the industrialized nations, Africa and other undeveloped countries have been significantly marked as unequal due to the pangs of colonialism and imperialism and that more openness will lead to greater exploitation (Nnamchi, 2011). Multinational corporations are also accused of leveraging on the tools of globalization to exploit and influence policies of government of their host communities. Disappearing borders, free movement of people and the tools of information technology have allegedly encouraged arms proliferation and insecurity especially in developing nations such as Africa where poverty, unemployment and youth restiveness abound.

Additionally, Schultz (1980), in Kingdom, & Orji (2015), portends that as good as globalization may be to the Western economy, it breeds poverty, insecurity and insurgency in Africa. As the world is gradually becoming a global village, security in Africa tends to worsen on a daily basis with rising cases of insurgencies and sectarian crises especially in Nigeria where Boko Haram (one of the deadliest terrorist groups in the world) holds sway.

 

 

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