Since the Berlin conference of 1884/85 and the scramble for and partition of Africa, Africa has a protracted history of civil war as a result of poor leadership, political instability, and agitation for resource control. Primarily, the study examined the critical role of the African Union Mission in Somalia (AMISOM) in the Somalia crisis. The AMISON has helped the Somalia National Security Forces (SNSF) push the Al-Qaeda-affiliated terror group, Al-Shabaab, out the Somalia capital, Mogadishu, and played a critical role in the formation of a legitimate government and the training of over 4000 Somalia Police Officers (SPL) in different categories of police work. The paper also looked at the AMISOM background, what gave rise to its formations and their mandate. The paper made use of the sociological theory of war as its theoretical framework. Of interest in this theory is Mead’s dismissal of the notion that war is the inevitable consequence of our "basic, competitive, aggressive, warring human nature"; war, for Mead is rather situated within the nature of state. The paper concluded by noting that regional peace and security in Africa should be given top priority by African leaders as this drives development and innovation. The paper recommended that a political solution should be given to the crisis where all the warring parties come to the negotiation table; prompt and adequate payment of troops should be adhered to; and, finally, democracy in Africa should be consolidated for a responsible leadership with conscience.
War, according to Margaret Mead (1940), is an invention...not a biological necessity. Peace, also, is not the absence of violence in totality but the functioning of all the apparatus of governance with an end result of responsible leadership. In the words of Ban Ki-Moon, former Secretary-general of UN, "peace means access to education, health, essential services which ...must be nurtured through the dignity, rights and capacities of every man and woman". It is a wakeup call for nations to be on their feet to beef up security, since there is no peace without development and development is not durable without peace. Peace and security is an integral part of a society, as regional bodies and international organizations like United Nations (UN), European Union (EU), African Union (AU), and Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS) are constantly involved in the promotion of peace and security.
The African Union has devised strategies for promoting peace, security and stability on the continent by focusing on measures that address issues like widespread poverty, youth unemployment, poor governance, illiteracy and lack of free and fair election, although with major focus on regional peacekeeping operations. AU has an active mission in Somalia called African Mission in Somalia (AMISOM) with approval from UN Security Council, with the mandate of ensuring free movement, safe passage and protection of all stakeholders involved in the peace process. These form the basis for this study. The central objective is to examine the critical role played by AMISOM in the Somalia Crisis, contributions of AMISOM in the Somalia crisis, taking into consideration the background of AMISOM, its mandate and brief history of Somali crisis. The paper sections include theoretical framework, conclusion and recommendations.
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