Paper Title
Ifeanyi J. Ojobor & Mark A. Eze
Law, Leadership, and Social Sciences

As a result of the exploration and exploitation of oil in the Niger Delta region of Nigeria, insurgency is pervasive and poverty is painfully deep-rooted. This study aims at determining the role played by corporate social responsibility (CSR) initiatives in stemming the tide of insurgency in the Niger Delta region of Nigeria. CSR explains the behaviour of organizations outside the core profit motive as it concerns employees, customers and the host community. The Social License to Operate (SLO) theory provided the theoretical background for the study which involved six oil-producing communities in Abia, Imo and Delta States (two communities in each of the states). Simple random sampling procedure guided the choice of the six communities used for the study. The survey research method was employed in carrying out the study while testing was done using ordinary Regression Analysis. Curiously, findings indicate that insurgency in the Niger Delta cannot be stemmed through the present CSR activities in host communities; and that even though CSR projects executed by oil companies in the Niger Delta have positive impact on host communities, they were insignificant. It was recommended, among others, that oil-producing communities and the oil companies develop a common understanding of what effective CSR is. Also, the quantum of CSR projects should increase to make them more impactful on host communities.

stemming, insurgency, Niger Delta, corporate social responsibility (CSR)



Background to the Study

The Niger Delta is located in the South-South part of Nigeria. Since the discovery of oil in commercial quantity in 1958, the region has occupied a crucial place in the economy of Nigeria as it contributes over 80 percent of the nation’s revenue. However, the massive environmental damage found in the region is attributable to the exploration and exploitation of this very resource. The consequence of this is the loss of agricultural land and aquatic foods in the area. With this has come agitation by the local people for compensation and development of infrastructure. Both the Federal Government of Nigeria and the oil companies operating in the Niger Delta have been blamed for this. While the oil companies are blamed for destroying the environment and showing no care and respect for the owners of the land, the Federal government has equally been blamed for the dearth of infrastructure in the region. The government is further blamed for failure to implement national policies as well as other legal instruments and agreements meant to stem continuous environmental damage and near-total absence of life-supporting infrastructure in the region. At present, there are some corporate social responsibility activities put up by the multi-national oil companies in the Niger Delta area of Nigeria, in response to the agitations and insurgency in the area. This study therefore seeks to determine the extent the CSR activities have been able to stem the tide of insurgency in the area, and to recommend possible areas of improvement in this respect.

Problem Statement

The problem of this study can be stated thus: To what extent can corporate social responsibility be used in stemming the tide of insurgency in the Niger Delta region of Nigeria?

Download the rest of the work from the link below the references



Assiouras, I., Ozgen, O., & Skourtis, G. (2013). The impact of corporate social responsibility in food industry in product-harm crises. British Food Journal, 115(1), 108-123.

Doyle. C. (2010, September). Indigenous peoples’ right to free prior and informed consent (FPIC) and the extractive sector. Paper presented at the IPLP Speaker Series, University of Arizona Rogers College of Law.

Eluyode, J. (2013). The notion of collective human rights and corporate social responsibility: Issues and trends in law. International Company and Commercial Law Review, 209-218.

Forstater, M., Zadek, S., Guang, Y., Yu, K., Hong, C., & George, M. (2010). Corporate responsibility in African development: Insights from an emerging dialogue. Corporate Social Responsibility Initiative, Working Paper No. 60. The Institute of West-Asian and African Studies, Chinese Academy of Social Sciences in cooperation with  UK Department for Int. Dev. (DFID), World Bank and their partners. Harvard Kennedy School.

Frost, J. (n.d.). When should I use regression analysis? Retrieved from>Blog.

Lewis, P. (2008, November). Corporate ethics in the 21st Century: Social responsibility, international       trade and human rights. Chicago, Illinois: CLE Conference Center for International Law, John Marshall Law School.

Lincoln, A. (2015). Rethinking social licence to operate: A concept in search of definition and boundaries. Environment and Energy Bulletin, 7(2).      .

Mitchell, R., Agle, B., & Wood, D. (1997). Toward a theory of stakeholder identification and salience: Defining the principle of who and what really counts. The Academy of Management Review 22(4), 853-886.

Musa, A., Yusuf, Y., McArdle, L., & Banjoko, G. (2013). Corporate social responsibility in Nigeria’s oil and gas industry: The perspective of the industry. International Journal of Process Management and Benchmarking, 3(2).

Nwankwo, B. (2015).  The politics of conflict over oil in the Niger Delta region of Nigeria: A review of the corporate social responsibility strategies of the oil companies. American Journal of Education Research, 3(4), 383-392.

Nwodu, E. (2006). Research in communication and other behavioural sciences: Principles, methods and issues. Enugu: Rhyce Kerex.

Oladele, K. (2013). Corporate social responsibility in Africa: Effective tool or convenient escape. Retrieved from /corporate_social_responsibility_africa_effective_tool_or _convenient_escape

Orlitzky, M., Schmidt, F., & Rhynes, S. (2003). Corporate social and financial performance:   A meta-analysis. Organization Studies, 24(3), 403-41.

Osuala, E. C. (2005). Introduction to research methodology. Onitsha. Africana First.

Shocker, A., & Sethi, S. (1973). An approach to incorporating societal preferences in developing corporate social action. California Management Review, 15(4). DOI: 10.2307/41164466

Sprangler, I., & Pompper, D. (2011). Corporate social responsibility and the oil industry: Theory and perspective fuel a longitudinal view. Public Relations Review, 37(3), 217-225.

Ubius, U., & Alas, R. (2012). The impact of corporate social responsibility on the innovation climate. Engineering Economics, 23(3), 310-318.

Wells, H. (2002). The cycles of corporate social responsibility: An historical retrospective for the  twenty-first century. Kansas Law Review, 51, 77-140. Retrieved from

Wikipedia (2014). Insurgency. Retrieved from http://en..wikipedia/wiki/insurgency