of the School of General Studies, Institute of Management and Technology (IMT), Enugu, Nigeria

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Redefining the Arts and Sciences for Functional Education in the 21st Century

IMT International Conference Centre (Then, Prof Mike Iloeje International Conference Centre) Institute of Management and Technology, Enugu, Nigeria

7-9 March 2016

The School of General Studies of the Institute of Management and Technology, Enugu, Nigeria, has initiated the idea of the Global Multidisciplinary Conference, with a view to:

  1. help build bridges across disciplinary, professional, and geographical divides; and
  2. contribute, through the findings of the Conference, to the peace, development and progress of the globe as a whole.


Conference Convener

Dr. Ojel Clara Anidi, Director, School of General Studies (Feb 2015 - Feb 2018).

Chairman, Local Organizing Committee

Dr. Emmanuel Ezugwu

Secretary, Local Organizing Committee

Barr. Ugonne Okamkpa


Fund-raising Sub-Committee Chair

Mrs Stella Mbaeze


Publicity Sub-Committee Chair

Dr. Rosemary Eneh


Logistics Sub-Committee Chair

Mr. Agama Agama


LOC Members

Dr. Innocent Eze (Chief Librarian of the Institute)

Dr. Mrs Ifeyinwa Anibueze

Dr. Mrs Ijeoma Nwajiaku

Dr. Akachi Achufusi

Pastor Henry Anuigbo

Mrs. Chinyere Ugwoke (Fund-raising)

Rev. Fr. Chinazu Okechukwu

Mrs Chinwe Iloelunachi (Entertainment)

Mr Leo Okoli

Mr. Fabian Amuta

Mrs. Chukwu

Mr. Uche Onyeke


Address from the Rector of IMT Enugu (2011 - 2016), Professor M.U. Iloeje


I am particularly happy, today, to welcome you all to this epoch-making 1st Global Multidisciplinary Conference of the School of General Studies of the Institute of Management and Technology, Enugu. It is a thing of pride that the Institute of Management and Technology (IMT), Enugu is here, today, and in a few following days, hosting an international Conference of this magnitude. This is the very first Conference I am witnessing as the Rector of the Institute of Management and Technology, Enugu. I am, therefore, happy because this, among other things, is a clear indication that the academic culture which my administration has painstakingly sought for in this Institute is, at last, taking root here.

This Conference is also a clear indication that our efforts in putting up this structure, with the help of TETFund, have not been in vain. Only last month, a well-attended National Workshop of the School of Financial Studies of the IMT was held in this Conference Centre. There was no way the numerous attendees of that National Workshop would have been accommodated in our old IMT Auditorium. Today, again, the Institute of Management and Technology is hosting the 1st Global Multidisciplinary Conference of the School of General Studies under the shelter of this Centre. Our dream of having a comfortable Centre like this for Conferences, workshops, seminars and other events has really come true.    

A Multidisciplinary Conference is a most welcome initiative in today’s world, especially in Nigeria of today, where the emphasis is on making education more functional. The education industry in Nigeria needs some restructuring and the different disciplines should come together to reexamine and refocus their methodologies, and, at the same time, learn from each other. That is why the theme of this premier Conference, “Redefining the Arts and Sciences for Functional Education in the 21st Century, is most appropriate and timely.

There is no better school in this Institute to engage in a multidisciplinary Conference/ research, and talk about all aspects of learning than the School of General Studies. The General Studies programme has been designed to provide an intellectual meeting point for all disciplines. Here, students are exposed to other disciplines of study with a view to making them perform better in their chosen field of study and in whatever area of society they may find themselves. As I have mentioned elsewhere, we live in an environment where science, arts, computer technology, ideas, men and materials constantly interact to shape lives. A surgeon, for example, who has no idea of art and aesthetics, may butcher his patients out of shape, all in the name of surgery. For this reason and others like that, the learning of art, humane judgement skills, humanities and social sciences are deemed compulsory in medical education in most parts of the world. In the same way, a sculptor who is not conversant with biology and the humane physiognomy or mathematics and measurements may never be able to practice.

The School of General Studies of the IMT, therefore, should be encouraged for initiating this idea of the Global Multidisciplinary Conference in the IMT. This Conference must have cost a lot of effort and money. I wonder whether the paltry Conference registration fees came near to the budget /cost of this event.

All over the world, the private sector and the community where an institution is located have always partnered with government agencies in funding educational developments. We are confident that there are individuals from the private sector who will be well-disposed to partner with the School of General Studies, and the IMT community, as a whole, in this bid to refocus our educational system and create a better society in Nigeria and the globe.

May I, once again, welcome all present here – the Conference participants and attendees, resource people, stakeholders of education, Government officials, Royal Fathers and Guests of Honour. Please enjoy the Conference and to some of you, who are visitors to Enugu, enjoy the beautiful Coal-City.

Thank you.

Professor M.U. Iloeje

B.Sc. Hons (Nig), M.Sc., PhD (Cornell). P.Doc. (Oxford), FIAAG





Welcome Remarks from the Conference Convener

Dr. Mrs Ojel Anidi

Dr. Ojel Anidi,

The Director, School of General Studies, (Feb 2015 - Feb 2018) IMT Enugu,


I welcome you, on behalf of the School of General Studies of the Institute of Management and Technology, Enugu, to this Global Multidisciplinary Conference, the first in a series of such Conferences we hope to be organizing. Our general objective is to use the Conference platform to help build bridges across disciplinary, professional, and geographical divides; and thus contribute, through the findings of the Conference papers, to the peace, development and progress of the globe, as a whole. Specifically, we hope to use the Conference medium to facilitate greater communication and understanding between scholars and professionals of different disciplines and/fields in the IMT Enugu and other (academic) institutions within and outside Nigeria. Our ultimate vision, following this Conference, is to produce a reputable, peer-reviewed, electronic, and print international journal of multidisciplinary research, publishing high-quality empirical researches or strong conceptual papers in the broad areas of arts, humanities, social sciences, pure and applied sciences, and technology.

The idea of the Global Multidisciplinary Conference series, as initiated by the School of General Studies of the IMT Enugu, has been strongly inspired by the philosophy behind the General Studies programme, which includes: to provide an intellectual meeting point for all disciplines, expand the intellectual horizon of students and therefore provide broad-based, people-oriented and self-reliant education. In this regard, Iloeje (2015) stated as follows:

We live in a world where science, arts, computer technology, ideas, men and materials interact to shape lives. The general studies programme is based on the philosophy of providing intellectual knowledge and training that equip students to understand the complex dynamics of modern society, so that graduates from any discipline can function effectively in all fields irrespective of his or her area of specialization.

It is in pursuance of this philosophy that the National Policy on Education in Section 5, subsection 3-7 makes the award of degrees, diplomas and certificates in Nigerian tertiary institutions contingent on the passing of courses in General Studies.

It is, therefore, the hope of the School of General Studies, IMT, Enugu to use the platform of the Global Multidisciplinary Conference annually to draw the attention and support of students, lecturers, professionals, policy makers in education, and the public to the multidisciplinary/ interdisciplinary approach to learning and knowledge, as embedded in the General Studies Programme of the Nigerian tertiary education system.

It is also our hope that the communiqué emanating from this Conference will be of significant benefit to the following stakeholders: the Nigerian government, Ministries and Departments of Education, NBTE, NUC, NCCE, UBE, and the likes, including the teachers and students in our educational system.

I crave your indulgence, at this point, to call on public-spirited individuals, professionals in the private sector, and, of course, our government to support the School of General Studies of the IMT Enugu, and the IMT Enugu, as a whole, in this humble attempt to contribute our own quota towards the development of education. Your financial or moral assistance is highly solicited. Specifically, we need assistance in the following areas:

  1. Building and Equipping of a General Studies Centre, a Centre for Multidisciplinary Research, in the Institute of Management and Technology, Enugu
  2. The Provision of a Vehicle for this Centre for Multidisciplinary Research in the Institute of Management and Technology, Enugu
  3. Sponsorship of the Global Multidisciplinary Conference Series, including the extra-expenditure of the present 2016 Conference

Meanwhile, we thank all the people and groups who have supported us, so far, in the organization of this premier Conference. Most of them have been credited in this brochure. The Rector and Management Team of the IMT Enugu are first among them. We thank, also, in a special way, our respected resource people, the Conference Chairman, Keynote and Lead Paper presenters, renowned academics who accepted to honour us with their presence and the various intellectual delicacies prepared for our pleasure, consumption and development. The Chief Host, our distinguished guests, Royal Fathers, guests of honour, respected and special, your presence has made all the difference in this Conference. Our dear Conference participants and attendees – some of you have come from distant places – we thank you for supporting this project.

Once again, I welcome you, on behalf of the School of General Studies, IMT Enugu, to the famous Institute of Management and Technology, Enugu, an institution undergoing an academic renaissance at the moment – resurrecting the ideals of its founding fathers – under the able leadership of our Scholar-Rector, Prof M.U. Iloeje, and his team of Management.

Enjoy yourselves.

Ojel Anidi

Conference Convener/ Director, School of General Studies

IMT, Enugu


Opening Remarks by the Chairman, Local Organizing Committee, Dr Emma Ezugwu


I join my voice to that of our Rector, Prof. M.U. Iloeje, and the Director of School of General Studies, Dr. Ojel Anidi, to welcome you to this Conference.

This is the first in the series of this type of multidisciplinary Conference we hope to be holding in the IMT. As you can see from the programme, we have a number of papers and participants from the different disciplines and sub-disciplines, addressing the themes and sub-themes of the 2016 premier Conference.

In a nutshell, six panels shall be running concurrently, starting from tomorrow, 8th March. They are: Panel A, which includes papers in humanities and social sciences, for examples, citizenship, governance/democracy, gender, languages, mass communication and entrepreneurship.

Panel B shall be discussing papers in Management and Financial Studies; and Panel C, papers in Art, Culture and Education. Papers relating to Natural and Health Sciences shall be taken in Panel E, and those relating to the environment shall go to Panel F.

Other details of paper presentation shall be seen in the programme and adjustments will be made where necessary.

Thank you all and welcome to this great institution – IMT Enugu.


Programme of Events

Monday, 7th March, Opening Ceremony

Venue: Prof Mike Iloeje International Conference Centre, IMT, Enugu

9.00am                        Registration of Participants

10.00am                      Arrival of Guests

10.30am                      Introduction of Chairman and Dignitaries

11.00am                      National Anthem

11.10am                      Opening Prayer by Rev. Fr. Dr. Ikechukwu Ani

11.15am                      Presentation of kola nuts

11.35am                      Chairman’s opening remarks

11.50am                      Music/ Cultural Display

11.55am                      Welcome Address by the Rector of IMT, Prof. M.U. Iloeje

12.10pm                      Welcome Remarks by the Director, School of General Studies

12.15pm                      Brief Remark by the LOC Chairman, Dr. Emma Ezugwu

12.20pm                      Keynote Presentation by Prof. Chinweyite Ejike

1.20pm                       Lead paper 1 Presentation by Dr Mrs. C. Njoku        

2.20pm                        Cultural/Music Display

2.35pm                        Speech by the Governor of Enugu State, His Excellency, Rt. Hon. Ifeanyi Ugwuanyi

3.00pm                        Oja/Flute Performance

3.10pm                        Vote of thanks by the Chairman, Local Organizing Committee, Dr. Emma Ezugwu

3.15pm                        National Anthem

3.20                             Cocktail/Lunch (Courtesy of the Chief Host, the Rector of IMT, Enugu)

EVENING SESSION (General) – 7th March 2016

Venue: Conference Main Hall

Chair: Prof. Johnny Eluka

4.45pm.           Awareness of Osteoporosis in a Tertiary Institution: Using Institute of Management and Technology Enugu - A Pilot Study, By Dr. Njeze Ngozi R. et al

5.15-6pm.        A Comparative Analysis of Nigerian and British Higher Education and the Way Forward for the Nigerian Education System, By C. Don Adinuba


Tuesday, 8th March,

Venue: Prof. Mike Iloeje International Conference Centre, IMT, Enugu

Plenary/General Session

Chair: C.Don Adinuba

9-10am: Lead paper I Presentation: Fighting for the Empire: Petitions as African Voices during the Second World War (Nigeria), by Associate Professor Chima Korieh




Citizenship Papers

  1. His Worship Iheobuna Ani: The Power of Individual Action
  2. Asogwa Scholastica: Migration of Unborn Nigerians and Citizenship
  3. Nnamani Desmond Okechukwu & Ojobor Lebechukwu: The Flaws and Distortions of True Federalism
  4. Ugwu Edward Godsmark: Principles of Leadership and Local Leadership Perspective




Professor Chiweyite Ejike, Ph.D, D.Sc (Honoris Causa), FBSN, Amankenewe III, Aguowulu Aguobu-Owa, Enugu State

For Nigeria and the Igbo micro-culture, Professor Chiweyite Ejike, teacher, university administrator, author, traditionalist, scholar and researcher is one such individual whose solid achievements and personal life have touched and positively changed the lives of his fellow men and the fortunes of institutions. Only a few highpoints of Prof Ejike’s person can be referred to here in view of space.

Prof Chiweyite Ejike, a native of Aguobu-Owa in Eziagu Local Government Area of Enugu State, was born seventy-eight years ago. His early education was at Brendan’s Roman Catholic School, Aguobu-Owa and St.Michael’s School Enugu. After this, he moved to the College of the Immaculate Conception Enugu where he graduated as the best student in the year 1956. His B.Sc and M.Sc degrees in Zoology and Experimental Zoology, respectively, were from the University of Manchester, England. Other academic certificates acquired include:

  • Certificate in Advance studies in marine Biology (UNESCO/University of Copenhagen/Danish International Co-operation Agency).
  • Ph.D. (Zoology), University of Ibadan.
  • D.Sc. (Honoraris causa) Federal University of Technology, Owerri (F.U.T.O).
  • D.Sc. (Honoraris causa) Ebonyi State University, Abakaliki (EBSU).

He has been a Professor for many years, was the foundation Head of Zoology Department, University of Jos (1976 – 1981), the Dean of Natural Sciences, University of Jos (1980 – 1984), Had 37 years of University Teaching Professional and mostly Senior Administrative experience spread over six universities in Nigeria: University of Ife (now Obafemi Awolowo University), University of Ibadan, University of Nigeria, Nsukka, University of Jos, University of Maiduguri, Federal University of Technology, Owerri, Served in many key capacities in University administration at the University of Nigeria, Nsukka and University of Jos, and developed bilateral relations with scientists in other universities as well as Research institutes, both nationally and internationally, and has contributed many published works of original research findings on his field of study and related disciplines.

His sterling leadership qualities were exhibited in the following offices he held:

  1. President of the Science Association of Nigeria, (1986).
  2. Founding President of the Biotechnology Society of Nigeria (1985 – 1987).
  3. One of the two African members on the 32-member editorial board of the Journal of Ethno-Pharmacology.
  4. Member of Experts Panel on Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology in Nigeria 1986.
  5. Chairman Anambra State Scholarship Board 1976 – 1980.
  6. Vice-Chancellor, Anambra State University of Technology (ASUTECH), Enugu, Nigeria 1986 – 1991. While in ASUTECH, he championed the multi-campus university structure in Awka, Enugu, Abakaliki and Nnewi, which today have yielded three full-fledged Universities and a Teaching Hospital.
  7. Pro-Chancellor, University of Maiduguri, Nigeria 1993 – 1997.
  8. Pro-Chancellor, Federal University of Technology, Owerri, Nigeria 1997 – 2000.

Since retiring from active academic duties in 1995, Prof Ejike has been very actively influencing the lives of young people through his teaching, research and documentataion institute, the Plus Ultra National Education Centre (PUNEC), Enugu. Again, his efforts to found an association dedicated o evolving strategies to reform and improve intellectual capacity-building in the Nigerian university system led to the formation of the Convention for Intellectual Co-opeartion of Nigeria (COFICON), of which he is Chairman, till date.

Prof Ejike is an ardent advocate of the African Traditional values, an Ozo title-holder and he is passionate about passing on something of value to future generations. Given this background, one is not, therefore, surprised that Ozo Aguowulu Profesoor Chiweyite Ejike, despite his age, has accepted to come today, in person, to continue to give of himself and his ideas to the development and progress of globe as a whole. May you remain blessed, Prof.


Keynote Address by Prof. Chiweyite Ejike


This keynote paper addresses the theme of the 1st Global Multidisciplinary Conference of the Institute of Management and Technology, namely: "Redefining of Arts and Science for Functional Education in the 21st Century". These two fields have had a common origin and have conformed, over the years to the demands of necessary conceptual constructs that guide intellectual and creative human endevours. Both derive from the exercise of reason, perhaps, even that of critical thinking, analyses and decision making, leading to rational solutions to human problems. Imaginative concepts from á priori notions and ideas reinforced by critical observations that would have been necessarily location specific constitute the primary foundations for the advancement of Science and Art. The two major disciplines, therefore, would have been for all times interconnected and integrated with the development of human culture.

Modern arts & science arose from primordial cultural practices that demanded appropriate explanations in order to improve humanistic understanding. This position is readily authenticated by practical archeological studies. Similarly, strong evidence from the history of science supports the fact that modern medical practice had developed originally from an approach which regarded medicine essentially as an Art.

Educationists agree that the challenge posed by the search for competence in the practice of Science, Technology, and other main stream applied Sciences could be overcome by emphasizing the interconnectedness between the methods and techniques of learning and teaching Arts and Science.

To benefit from the various innovative opportunities capable of transforming teaching and learning as well as the successful practice of arts and sciences requires rigorous knowledge of frontline technology especially in information and communication, the application of which has proved to add immense value both to the creative content and intellectual depth of modern arts and science. The search for Functional Education especially in the third world countries such as Nigeria will undeniably receive a boost if our Tertiary Education Institutions would embark on a deliberate policy of combining and uniting various specialized disciplines with core curricula in humanities thus, aiming to produce highly, all-round educated total men and women able to hold their own in the very rapidly changing and competitive world of today and in the future.



Lead Paper I Presenter: Dr (Mrs) Cele Ugochi Njoku, Rector, Federal Polytechnic, Nekede,

Dr (Mrs) Cele Ugochi Njoku




Dr. (Mrs.) Cele. U. Njoku, is the first female Rector of the Federal Polytechnic Nekede, Owerri after 32 years of existence of the Polytechnic. She hails from Obibiezena in Owerri North, LGA. She has served the Polytechnic in different capacities, as Hall Warden 1993 to 2002, the first Centre Manager/Team Leader (South–East Zone), UNESCO NIGERIA TVE in revitalization of Technical and Vocational Education in Nigeria, 2001 to 2003 and Dean, of the Division of Students Affairs, January 2002 to January 2005. Has served as Chairman, Coordinator and member of several Boards, Committees and Panel of the Polytechnic and has initiated/generated many proposals which the Polytechnic implemented to its credit. She served as a member of the Federal Government Visitation Panel for Federal Polytechnic, Idah, Kogi State, during the 2005 exercise. She led the Youth to Geneva, Switzerland for an International Summit on ICT in 2005 and also a member of the Team to Israel on Acquisition of equipment for Technical and Vocational Education in 2011 for Polytechnics. London trip, Dubia, Ghana, etc.

She holds a B.B.ED (Hons.) degree in Vocational and Technical Education (1983), from Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria, Masters in Vocational and Technical Education Degree of the University of Nigeria, Nsukka (1990) and Doctor of Philosophy (Ph.D) Degree in Vocational and Technical Education (Business Education Option) also, from University of Nigeria Nsukka in 1997 and a professional Diploma Certificate in Computer Operation (1998).

It is important to mention here certain outstanding remarks about her.

• she was the first Ph.D holder in her department

• the First UNESCO-NIGERIA TVE Project Manager in the revitalization of

Technical/Vocational in Polytechnics in the South East Zone.

• the First WOMAN in charge of UNESCO-NIGERIA TVE in the revitalization of

Technical/Vocational in Polytechnics in the Nigeria.

• The first Substantive Female Dean of Student Affairs.

• The First President-Elect of Federal Polytechnic Nekede, Owerri Women


• The First Female Rector of the Federal Polytechnic, Nekede, Owerri.

• The first Rector of Federal Polytechnic, Nekede, Owerri in NBTE Board.

• The First Inaugural Lecturer of Federal Polytechnic, Nekede, Owerri

In addition to these, she holds several other professional qualifications and professional membership. She has more than 40 articles published in National and international journals of repute and has presented more than 36 well researched papers presented at national and international conferences and is the author and co-author of seven (7) standard textbooks among others. In addition has presented several papers bordering in Women, the Girl-child, the home and society. The highly prolific and innovative writer has considerable leadership qualities and a consuming passion for Human Development. No wonder she chose a woman as her Deputy, created a Centre for Gender Studies immediately she came on board and assigned women several positions in the institution. Has been greatly involved in the moral upbringing of the Girl-Child in rural areas and has adopted more than 40 youth for training at different levels as will as widows and indigent women. She is highly motivated, result-oriented and pays careful attention to details.

Dr. (Mrs.) C.U. Njoku, is a lady of the Knight of St. Mulumba (KSM), of the Catholic Church. She has been honoured as an Ambassador of Peace by the renowned Universal Peace Federation in collaboration with the Youth Federation for World Peace, a Fellow of the Association of Business Educators of Nigeria (ABEN) NSE Star Award by Nigerian Society of Engineers among others. She was a Board Member of National Board for Technical Education (NBTE) and the Centre for Financial Studies, of CIBN. Matron of many Professional, Social and Religious Organisations. She belongs to so many religious and pious organizations and is happily married to Professor J.E. Njoku of Eziala Obiangwu, Ngor Okpala, LGA, a former Vice Chancellor of Federal University of Technology, Owerri (FUTO), one time Honourable Commissioner for Lands and the immediate past Honourable Commissioner of Education, Imo State. The marriage is blessed with four children (2 boys and 2 girls).



Chima J. Korieh

Chima J. Korieh

Chima J. Korieh is associate professor of African History at Marquette University, Milwaukee, Wisconsin. He graduated with a first class honors from the University of Nigeria Nsukka and a PhD from the University of Toronto. He was a British Academy Fellow at Oxford University in 2008 and also a Fellow of the African Studies Center, Leiden, Netherlands. His publications include The Land Has Changed:History Society and Gender in Colonial Eastern Nigeria (2010) and several edited books includingThe Nigeria-Biafra War: Genocide and the Politics of Memory (2012) andRemembering Biafra: Narrative, History and Memory of the Nigeria-Biafra War (revised 2014). He is the editor of Igbo Studies Review – A Journal of the Igbo Studies Association.

Fighting for the Empire: Petitions as African Voices during the Second World War (Nigeria)

My talk explores the medium through which the Nigerian population addressed and contested the series of rule, restrictions and regulations imposed by the British to address the crisis generated by the Second World War. In this context, the letters and  petitions they wrote provide one of the very few opportunities to locate African men’s and women’s voices as they confronted the new political and economic system introduced during the war to maximize the extraction of local resources.These letters reveal how the war was fought in the spaces of everyday life, where many ordinary people like the petitioners above worked to achieve the goals of the Empire abroad and to give it meaning in their daily lives at home. These letters reveals local peoples engagements with the politics of colonial control, especially, on matters of everyday subsistence such as food, and the connections between broader war policy and the African home front.