Paper Title
Challenges of Women Participation in Entrepreneurship in Bayelsa State
Author
Helen Ebiemi Opigo, Ph.D & Henrietta M. Okoro, Ph.D
Section
Law, Leadership, and Social Sciences
Abstract

Women entrepreneurs contribute to job creation and socio-economic development of Bayelsa state and in doing so have undergone a lot of problems, in starting and running their businesses. The objective of the study wasto examine the various challenges faced by women entrepreneurs in Bayelsa state with a view to proffering solutions. The research methodology adopted for this study was descriptive hence questionnaire was administered to 50 women owned proprietary enterprises in Manufacturing, Trading and Services in Yenagoa and its environs who owned a workforce of 10 and over.Data analysis was done in line with the objective of the study using frequencies, percentages, mean and simple linear Correlation. The findings revealed that women entrepreneurs in Bayelsa state are particularly constrained by financial problems, lack of adequate business knowledge, inability to get information, family pressure, a socio- cultural hindrances and inability to avail of government support.

 

Keywords
Women, entrepreneurs, challenges, socio-economic, development

Introduction

    

Importance of Women in Entrepreneurship

Women undertake enormous responsibilities in modern families, societies, and national affairs. Women entrepreneurs are contributors to the economy because they make changes in the socio-economic sector. They contribute a lot of ideas and spend a great deal of time, energy, and capital resources in their communities. They create jobs and generate additional work for other businesses (Iyiola & Azhu, 2014). Due to the economic downturn in many developing countries, causing job losses for the heads of the household, women as custodians of families took the responsibility of stabilizing the family through the running of microenterprises. Thus, women are known to forgo a lot of things for the survival of their families, along with their reproductive function (Garba, 2011). This implies that to disregard women in any development process would mean a waste of human resources. Hence, research suggests that women in developing countries have acquired a measure of autonomy, as perceptions of their role seem to be changing. As Carrington (1994) would argue, international organizations and banks have acknowledged this changing position of women and their growing responsibilities through funding women-led small businesses and farming projects. Nevertheless, the acknowledgment of this changing position of women has nothing to do with politics and more with the economic experience that women face, especially in developing countries (Carrington, 1994).

 

Download the rest of the work from the link below the references

Refrences

Adepelumi, P. A. (2011). Women entrepreneurship as a tool for economic development in Nigeria, African Centre for Advocacy and Human Development (ACAHD)

Aina, O. I. (2003). Small enterprises owned by women in Nigeria. Policy and Practices in Africa, IDRC Publications, 14(29), 1-90.

Allen, E., Minnit, M., &Langouitz, N. (2006).Global Entrepreneurship Monitor, 2005: Report on Women and Entrepreneurship. GEM Publication.

Arenius, P., & Minniti, M. (2003). Women in entrepreneurship: The entrepreneurial advantage of Nations.  First Annual Global Entrepreneurship Symposium, United Nations Headquarters, 29 April 2003.

Barrett, M. (2006). Women’s entrepreneurship in Australia: Present and their future.In C. Brush, N. Carter, E. Gatewood, P. Green, &M. Hart (Eds.),Growth oriented women entrepreneurs and their businesses: A global perspective. Massachusetts, USA: Edward Elgar Publishing.

Brush, C. D., Bruin, A. D.,& Welter, F. (2009). A gender aware framework for women’s Entrepreneurship.International Journal of Gender and Entrepreneurship, 1(1), 8-28.

Carrington, T. (1994). Gender economics: In developing world, international lenders are targeting Women.The Wall Street Journal, June 22. 

Coleman, S. (2007). The role of human and financial capital in the profitability and growth of women-owned small firms. Journal of Small Business Management, 45 (3), 303-319.

COWAN-The Country Women’s Association of Nigeria (COWAN). Retrieved from http://www.wedo.org/library/chief-bisi-ogunleye-the-country-women%E2%80%99s- association-of-Nigeria-Cowan.

Dionco-Adetayo, E. A., Makinde, J.T., & Adebayo, J. O. (2000). Evaluation of policy implementation in women entrepreneurship development. Retrieved from             www.icsb.org/document/ICSB_best WOB paper_2005, assessed on 26/04/2012.

Emmanuel, C.L. (2013). Entrepreneurship: A conceptual approach. Second Edition. Pumark Nigeria Limited, 353-358.

Farrington, P. R. (2006). Women entrepreneurs: How important are their perceptions? Academy of Entrepreneurship Journal, 12 (1),1-15.

Garba, S. A. (2011). Stumbling block for women entrepreneurship in Nigeria: How risk attitude and lack of capital mitigates their need for business expansion. European Journal of Economics, Finance and Administrative Sciences, 36, 38-49.

Iyiola, O. O.,& Azuh, D. (2014). Women entrepreneurs as small-medium enterprise (SME) operators and their roles in socio-economic development in Ota, Nigeria. International Journal of Economics, Business and Finance2,(1), 1-10.

Iheduru, N. G. (2002). Women entrepreneurship and development: The gendering of microfinance in Nigeria. A paper presented at the 8th International Interdisciplinary Congress at Makeree University, Kampala-Uganda Women, 21-26 July.

Kirkwood, J. (2009).Is a lack of self-confidence hindering women entrepreneurs? International Journal of Gender and Entrepreneurship, 1 (2), 118-133.

Lorber, J.,& Farrell, S. A. (1991). The social construction of gender.California USA:Sage Publication, Inc.

Minniti, M.,& Arenius, P. (2003). Women in entrepreneurship: The entrepreneurial advantage of  nations. First Annual Global Entrepreneurship Symposium, United Nations Publications, April, 2003.

Mordi, C., Simpson, R., Singh, S.,& Okafor, C. (2010). The role of cultural values in understanding the challenges faced by female entrepreneurs in Nigeria. Gender in Management: An International Journal, 25(1), 5-21.

Mullins, J. (2011). How to prevent start-up businesses from failing.The Entrepreneur Today. Retrieved from www.businessday online.com assessed on 26/04/2012.

Nelson, T., Maxfield, S., & Kolb, D. (2009). Women entrepreneurs and venture capital: Managing the shadow. International Journal of Gender and Entrepreneurship, 1(1), 57-76.

Ogundele, O. J.,& Opeifa, A. Z. (2003). Factors that influence the emergence, behavior and performance of entrepreneurs in Nigeria. The Abuja Management Review,1 (2).

Ogunleye, G. A. (2004). Small and medium scale enterprises as foundation for rapid economic development in Nigeria. In A. T. Ojo (Ed.), Small and medium enterprises development and SMIEIS: Effective implementation strategies. Lagos, Maryland Finance Company and Consultancy Service Ltd.

Olutunla, G. T. (2001). Entrepreneurship for economic development. Inaugural LectureSeries 27, Delivered at the Federal University of Technology, Akure, Thursday, 26th April.

Okafor, C.,& Amalu, R. (2010). Entrepreneurial motivations as determinants of women entrepreneurship challenges.Petroleum-Gas University of PloiestiBULLETIN Economic Sciences series, LXII (2), 67-77.

Singh, S., Mordi, C., Okafor, C., & Simpson, R. (2010). Challenges in female entrepreneurial development –A case analysis of Nigerian entrepreneurs.Journal of Enterprising Culture: An International Journal, 18(4), 435-460.

Soetan, F. (1997). Entrepreneurship and Nigerian women: Is there any meeting Point? Small Enterprise Development, 8, March.

Todaro, M. L.,& Smith, S. C. (2009). Economic development, 10th Edition. Addison-Wesley, Pearson Education.

Tambunan, T. H. (2008). Development of SMEs in ASEAN. New Delhi India: Read worthy Publications, Ltd.

Thomson, S. (2002). Women’s entrepreneurship development in micro and small enterprises: A case Study in the Ukraine. A paper presented to the School of International Training, International Studies, Organizations, and Social Justice, Geneva, Switzerland, May, 6.

 

...