Paper Title
Biophysical Environment Degradation and Housing Development in Enugu Urban
Bemsodi Eke
Management and Financial Studies

The essence of this study is to carry out an empirical analysis of biophysical environment degradation and housing development in Enugu Urban. The theoretical framework adopted in this study is the functionalist housing theory. The study adopted the survey method and data was collected from thirty (30) respondents distributed among three estates, namely, Fidelity Estate, Maryland Estate and Bethel Estate all in Enugu Urban, Enugu State Nigeria. Data for this study was analyzed with the ordinal logistic regression. This is justified on the fact that ordinal logistic regression is used to predict an ordinal dependent variable given one or more independent variables. The major findings of the study were that housing development in Enugu metropolis has a negative and significant impact on water quality and housing development in Enugu State has a negative and significant impact on soil quality. It is therefore the recommendation of this study that the housing authorities in Enugu Urban should institute measures to ensure that housing development does not compromise environmental quality, house owners, Estate developers and indeed all residents should be properly sensitized through environmental education on the dangers of abusing environmental standards.

Biophysical, environment, degradation, housing development, Enugu urban


In an ordinary parlance, a biophysical environment can be seen as a biotic and abiotic surrounding of an organism or population, and consequently includes the factors that have an influence in their survival, development, and evolution (Deng & Wilson, 2006). A biophysical environment can vary in scale from microscopic to global in extent. A conducive biophysical environment is necessary for land fertility, environmental equilibrium and other miscellaneous benefits. However, the rate of housing development and construction in many parts of Nigeria, Enugu state inclusive, calls for a concern.

However, there is an adverse relationship between housing construction and environmental sustainability. The two variables tend to move in an indirect proportional relationship. Whenever there is an increase in housing construction and development, the lower the level of environmental sustainability (Vanclay, 2015). Housing is the second most essential human need after food. It is an integral part of human settlement that has a profound impact on the quality of life, health, welfare, productivity of man as well as economic development and environmental sustainability. This implies that housing has a multiplier effect on the human society and economic development. In spite of this essential nature of housing, a large proportion of the population in most developing countries does not have access to decent housing at affordable cost (Sengupta & Sharma, 2016).

Environmental effects of housing construction activities may vary from place to place, state to state, country to country. These major environmental impacts of housing construction projects includes; pollution, waste disposal, resource use and habitat destruction, desertification, soil erosion and material wastage etc. Housing construction activity such as use of resources like timber and non- fuel materials etc. leads to habitat destruction, loss of arable land, and loss of biodiversity etc. (Janjic, 2016).


Download the rest of the work from the link below the references



Adnan, A. (2014). Life cycle assessment: A case study of a dwelling home in Scotland. Building and Environment, 42(3), 1391-1394.

Akinmoladun, G. & Oduwaye, L. O. (2000). Housing and community in Taning Megalopolis Vol. I. Anchor\Books edition.

Attamah, N. (2016). Energy and carbon dioxide implications of building construction. ENB2016, 20, 205-217.

Daramola, F. (2006). Strategies for affordable housing stocks delivery in Nigeria. 18th Inaugural Lecture ofAmbrose Alli University, Floreat System Benin-City pp.2-20

Deng, S. & Wildon, A. (2006) Estimating the environmental suitability of wall materials: preliminary results from Sri Lanka. Building and Environment, 39(10), 1253- 1261.

Emeka, K.O (2017). Evaluation of residential development through user’s rating and ranking of environmental Attributes. Proceedings of the IAHS Congress on Housing NW 7–12 Miami Florida Ural ED. (ed.) pp.73-84.

George, E. (2016). Planning that works: Housing policy and economic development in Singapore. JPER, 7(3), 147-162.

Gordons, J. O. (2014). The impact of development policies on health. In A. Dianna, & D. Cooper (Eds.), A Review of the Life Nature (pp. 21-40). Geneva: WHO.

Herra, A. (2009) Has the habitat for humanity housing scheme achieved its goal? A Ghanaian case study. Journal Housing and the Built Environment (24), 67-84.

Henry, H. (2008). Real estate in global cities: Singapore and Hong Kong as property states. Urban Studies, 37(12), 2241–2256.

Igbinoba, F. D. (2011). An appraisal of the impact of urban services on housing in Akure Metropolis. J. Sci. Eng. Technol. 9(4), 4570-4582

Iloeje, G., Lee, J., Forest, R., & Tam, K. W. (2013). Home-ownership in east and south Asia: Market, state and institutions. In R. Forrest, & J. Lee (Eds.), Housing and social change. Routledge, London, NY: Taylor and Francis Group.

Janjic, H. (2016). Strategies for affordable housing stocks delivery in Nigeria. 18th Inaugural Lecture ofAmbrose Alli University, Floreat System Benin-City pp.2-20

Jiboye, S. (2009). Environmental health in Sub-Saharan Africa: Effective interruptions (Draft): World Bank, Washington D.C.

Mike, K. (2015). Can ISO 14000 and eco-labelling turn the construction industry green? Building and Environment, 37(4):421-428.

Mohamad, A., Linda, O. & Richard, K (2009). Ghrelin nitrite and paraoxonase/arylesterase concentrations in cement plant workers. MedicalBiochemistry, 29(2): 78-83.

Nishan, M. (2016). The role of construction in global socio-economic development. Habitat International, 3(1/2): 71–76.

Ononugbo, D. G., Akpan, J. T., & Osho, B. (2010). A study of housing and neighborhood satisfaction. Sustain: A Journal of Environmental and Sustainability Issues, 11(Fall/Winter).

Rogić, D. (1990). The layout and morphology of Yoruba town. In Yoruba Culture (p.131). University of Ife and London University Press.

Russ, B., Beaton, B., & Chris M. (2011). Poverty and transport, A report prepared for the World Bank in collaboration with DFID, Overseas Development Institute.

Sengupta, M., & Sharma, J. (2016). An assessment of why the problems of housing Shortages persist in developing countries: A case of study of Lagos Metropolis, Nigeria. Pakistan Journal of Social Science 4(4): 589-598).

Smith, F., Albanese, V. & Truder, J. (2014). Housing poverty in three inner-city neighbourhoods, Akure. Paper presented at Shelter Africa 2000- Fourth International Conference on Housing, Nicon Hilton Hotel, and Abuja, Nigeria 2-6 October

Vanclay, K.S. (2015). Appraisal of the National Housing Policy. Housing Today 1 (6), 1320